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The ninth symposium on Egyptian Royal Ideology in Munich in 2018 was dedicated to the ancient Egyptian kingship under foreign rulers. Case studies from the first millennium BC addressed questions of peculiarities and/or similarities in the kingship of foreigners, who ruled Egypt in particular during the so-called Late Period and in Ptolemaic times. Thirteen contributions deal with shared characteristics and specific differences; new results from current field work are integrated into these analyses. The case studies from Egypt and the Sudan illustrate recent research areas such as the investigation of the general dynamics of cultural contacts, which take into account the acceptance, but also adaptations and rejections of cultural markers. In addition to epoch-spanning studies on ancestor worship, costumes and titles, new research on the ideology, religion and the building program of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty is in the foreground. Other contributions deal with the Persian period (Twenty-seventh Dynasty) and the royal ideology in Hellenistic Egypt under the Ptolemies.