Mannheimer Beiträge zur Klassischen Archäologie und Geschichte Griechenlands und Zyperns
Die Außenkontakte der Ägäis in der Zeit nach dem Zusammenbruch der Paläste bis zur Renaissance im 8. Jh. v. Chr.
External relations of the Aegean region from the destruction of the mycenaean palaces to the renaissance of the 8th century B.C. are the main theme of this essay. Foreign objects, so called orientalia or exotica, were found all over Greece (including Crete); first of all in grave contexts, but then more often in sanctuaries. This article includes, besides a presentation of orientalia, a short overview of the historical background (from LH III to the LG-period) and a chapter which illuminates the principles of (gift-) exchange from a socio-anthropological perspective.
Neues zu den Amazonen von Ephesos
The recently discovered first complete copies of two types of Amazons from Ephesos, the marble statue of Sciarra and a terracotta of the Mattei type, are presented and their iconography is discussed and interpreted. They confirm the author’s former reconstruction of fragmentary statuary copies of the Mattei type. The conclusions are set in contrast to information given by Lucian concerning the motive of posture and movement of an amazone created by Phidias. The amazone Mattei handles her bow, and not a spear as shown in a depiction by L. Natter in 1754, based on a hitherto unknown gem. As a result, the amazone Mattei cannot be attributed to Phidias, but surely the amazone Sosikles is a work by that sculptor. In conclusion, the amazone Sciarra is attributed to Polykleitos. The meaning of a classification by Pliny of the first ranging statue as “probatissime” is discussed. The different methods of copying since hellenistic times are illustrated and discussed, juxtaposing the terracotta copy Mattei, the marble head Sosikles in Herculaneum, and also the Apollonios bronzebust of the Polykleitian doryphoros of Herculaneum in Neapel MN 4845.
Das Reiterrelief Albani
The author shows that the famous relief of a horseman in the Villa Albani, although found in Rome, must have been part of the Athenian State Burial in the Ceramicos. It was probably part of the monument for the casualties of the first year of the Peloponnesian War, for whom Pericles gave his famous speech reproduced by Thucydides. As the tomb stood not far from the Dipylon on the right-hand side of the road to the Academy, the relief shows the victorious Athenian in the act of dismounting while his horse races back towards Athens. His opponent is shown on the ground in front of a rock depicting Mount Aigaleon where an important cavalry engagement took place that year (431 B.C.). The plague came to Athens this same year and it would seem that the anti-luxury decree against private grave- reliefs was lifted. This public monument may have initiated the series of horsemen and fighting scenes on private grave-reliefs.
George R. H. Wright
The Study of Attic Pottery and the Study of Music. A Contemporary Parallel
This is a contribution to the dicussion about the imitation of metal vase forms in pottery and the pretended artistic value of ceramic products and its consequences for modern archeological scholarship.
Kaiser Konstantins Bilderbogen oder: Die Botschaft der Spolien
The irritating fact that emperor Constantine had his triumphal arch in Rome decorated with reliefs taken from monuments of earlier emperors has never been explained satisfactorily and thus this question is posed here anew. Taking the big attica inscription as a starting point, the author can show that all pictorial scenes are linked to it. Text and pictures are interrelated by an close network of mutual commentation and interpretation. The message of the short text is unfolded by the reliefs and can be received visually. Thus it is clear that the spolia have been selected and arranged on the monument very carefully. With the help of their obvious historical distance the new emperor is able to send two complementary messages to the viewer: while he a gives a clear confession as to old Roman values he discretely hints at some future changes as for e.g. pietas.
„Sie befahl, im ganzen Land Töchter armer Eltern zu sammeln ...“. Zur Vorbildwirkung der Stiftertätigkeit der serbischen Königin Jelena († 1314)
The present article focuses on two Serbian noblewomen, namely queen Jelena and the princess Mara Brankovi. The written sources of the 13th respectively 15th century reveal an active role exercised by both women as benefactors. Queen Jelena educated daughters deriving from poor families and married them off, while Mara Brankovi took care of children, which should be fostered by the monasteries of Chilandariu and Hagiu Paulu on Mount Athos after her death and become nuns. Although both women are separated by a period of nearly 150 years, it seems that queen Jelena served as a role model for Mara Brankovi in this respect.
Carl Theodors Korrespondenz mit Voltaire und die Olimpie
During his flight from the Prussian court after quarrelling with the king in 1753 Voltaire was invited by Elector Palatine Carl Theodor to his summer residence at Schwetzingen. From the regular talks during this stay a close relationship was established, based on the prince’s love for the theatre. When Voltaire left the exchange of thoughts continued by way of letters in French. Unfortunately only few of these letters survived in a strange edition in German translation. The letters discussed and commented history, politics and scholarly work as well as theatre practice, e.g. the use of antique costumes for plays dealing with ancient history or mythology, or the use of open fire on stage. In 1763 Voltaire devoted his piece ‘Olimpie’ first staged in Mannheim, to Carl Theodor. It was his only work which was published in Germany first - by C.A. Collini, Voltaire’s former secretary, who meanwhile was head of the natural science cabinet of the Mannheim Academy of Sciences.
Antike Bildwerke: archäologische Bilder und photographische Abbilder. Ein Plädoyer für die ‚archäologische‘ Photographie
Everything that is implied but not overtly expressed in the book “Archäologie der Photographie”, written by A. Alexandridis and W.-D. Heilmeyer (cf. note 5 of the above article) should have been touched on. Since photography as a medium for conveying antiquity is only slightly more recent than classical archaeology, it has seen appropriate to subject the development of both to a common study to clarify their interrelationship. In order to extrapolate the scientific use of photography in archaeology and the ways of seeing underlying it, the evaluation of ancient sculpture/historic landscapes and modern photographs of them has been analytically compared from the following angels: a) from that of classical archaeology as a science and b) from standpoints related to the history of photography. It is suggested here that taking photographs should not just be done with a view to instant evaluation but to an overarching consensus (attention paid to the alignment of axes, scale, the space occupied, taking into consideration the formal canon governing ancient works of art).
Kyriakos N. Demetriou
The “Troodos Hunting Expedition”. A transcribed narrative from the records of Edward W. D. Croker (September 1885 or 1886)
The “Troodos Hunting Expedition” is a hitherto unpublished manuscript from the records of Captain E.W.D. Croker, who served the Cyprus Military Police in the early years of the British rule on the island. Transcribed with respect to the original linguistic usage and conventions, the text belongs to a certain literary genre (19th- century hunting literature). More than that, however, it constitutes a primary source appealing both to the cypriologist and the student of nineteenth-century imperial culture. It is a lively account of a hunting expedition that reveals ethnological and social habits and characteristics of the rural people of Cyprus at the same time as it exposes imperialist perceptions and racial overtones.
„Ein ergreifendes Bild der Trauer“. Antikenrezeption auf dem Ersten Friedhof von Athen. Zur Grabstele des Epigraphikers Hans von Prott (1869- 1903)
The Epigrapher Hans von Prott committed suicide in Athens on September 12th, 1903 in his room in the German Archaeological Institute where he had been working as ‚assistant for epigraphy‘. His burial took place in the protestant part of the First Cemetery of Athens. Shortly before his death, during a trip to Laconian Geraki, he had found a small relief representing a seated youth, now in the museum of Sparta (Inv. 10.991). A copy of this relief is used on his grave stele in combination with the copy of a Parian Acroterion, also dating to the eary fifth century. The stele is an example for planful invention of a classicistic prototype according to criteria of type and style. Subsequently, the Geraki relief occurs again twice on the First Cemetery: once in combination with the copy of an acroterion from an Athenian grave stele (Athens, NM Inv. 2253) on the monument for Polybios Skender who died in 1923. Another time it is used in the decoration of the burial plot of the family of the sculptor Thomas Thomopoulos (1873-1937), where the seated youth received large wings, thus representing a mourning angel.
Commentaires, estimations et vérités sur l’interruption des négociations de Belgrade
After the denunciation of the Greek-Serbian Treaty of Defensive Alliance and Friendship (19 May / 1 June 1913) form the part of the Yugoslav Government on 14 November 1924, the relations between Athens and Belgrade entered into a period of crisis. In this context, the negotiations for the solution of the problems between the two neighbouring countries that started in Athens and continued in Belgrade did not manage to bridge the gap, as the Yugoslav Government insisted on her demands over a series of critical questions, like the railway line connecting Thessaloniki and Gevgeli, the Free Serbian Zone in the port of Thessaloniki and the Slav populations living in Greek Macedonia. Thus, the bilateral negotiations were finally interrupted in June 1925, leaving Greek-Yugoslav under the shadow of many unsolved problems. The article, based primarily on research in the archives of the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs, studies these illfated negotiations and tries to answer the question which reasons led to their interruption.
The Quest for Enosis: the visit of the Greek Cypriot Deputation to London in October- November 1929. A view from the Greek archives
The signature of the Lausanne Peace Treaty ?n 24 July 1923 marked the beginning of a new period in the history of the Cyprus Question, at least from a legal point of view, as Turkey officially recognized the annexation of the island proclaimed by Great Britain on 5 November 1914. However, the dedication of the Greek Cypriot majority to the ideal of Union (Enosis) with Greece remained unchanged. The Greek Cypriots continued to hope that sooner or later London would consent to their demands. Thus, immediately after the British elections of 30 May 1929, the Greek Cypriots decided to compile a new Memorial, which they would submit to the Secretary for the Colonies, asking for Union with Greece. For this reason, the Bishop of Kition Nikodemos (Mylonas) and the lawyer Stavros Stavrinakis, both elected members of the Legislative Council, were entrusted to travel to London, where they would act as ‘‘ambassadors’’ of the unredeemed Greek Cypriot people. The Deputes were assisted in their task by Zenon Rossides, who acted as the secretary of the Deputation. The article, based on research in the archives of the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs studies the visit of the Greek Cypriot Deputation to London in autumn 1929, the way Greek diplomacy was involved in the whole matter and the consequences of the visit in relation to the evolution of the Cyprus Question in the interwar period.
Egon W. Scherer
Die Blinden und die Sehenden. Mai 1941: Deutsche Fallschirmjäger in der „Hölle von Kreta“. Die Rolle der britischen Funkaufklärung
The conquest of the British occupied Crete by German parachutists in May 1941 was one of the most astonishing and most curageous actions of the war, as Liddel Hart said. The Germans paid dearly for it: They lost more than 30 percent of the soldiers. The knew little to nothing about the military situation on the island. The British were very well informed about the German plans: The had decrypted German enciphered wireless messages containing all details of the plans of attack with the help of Ultra. Although the defenders were well briefed they lost the battle of Crete.
Major Ioannis Papathanasiou und der nationale Widerstand in Makedonien 1941-1944
One of the most important persons of the Greek Resistance in Macedonia (1941-1944) was Major Ioannis Papathanasiou. He was the head of an illegal resistance organization called YVE/PAO (Defenders of Northern Greece/Panhellenic Liberation Organization). As member of the nationalist resistance movement he tried to achieve the unification of all resistance groups against the German, and especially, the Bulgarian occupation. In autumn 1944 he became a leading figure of the nationalist guerilla forces in Eastern Macedonia and cooperated with the British. After the Liberation he fought against the revolt of the «Democratic Army».
Deutschland und der Zypernkonflikt (1955-1959). Aus den Akten des Auswärtigen Amtes
This article describes the politics of the Federal Republic of Germany towards the British Crown Colony of Cyprus during the EOKA struggle for freedom during the years 1955-59. Based on the files of the German Foreign Office it becomes clear that for Germany the struggle in Cyprus was not merely a local conflict but a real problem for the just reestablished German foreign policy. For the German government the relationship towards Great Britain, Turkey and Greece was at stake. So the Adenauer government decided to take a strictly neutral stance on the Cyprus question at that time. A special emphasis is given to the reports of the German consul in Nicosia as well as the reports of the German embassies in Athens and Ankara.
Heinz A. Richter
Die Krise in Griechenland 1965-1967
In July 1965 King Constantine II toppled Prime Minister Georgios Papandreou. By this act he provoked an deep political crisis which ended in the coup of 21 April 1967. The article describes developments under the Prime Ministers Athanasiadis-Novas, Ilias Tsirimokos and Stefanos Stefanopoulos. It observes how the king got more and more involved in party politics and, indeed, became the leader of the Greek Right. At the same time the Center Union of G. Papandreou split. Constant mass demonstrations showed the indignation of the public and the degree of poisoning of the political climate. Papandreou started his anendotos agon (untiring struggle) to bring him back in power in the next elections. When things became calmer the ASPIDA affair destabilized the country again.
Heinz A. Richter
Der Putsch vom 21. April 1967
This article analyses the developments in April 1967. Prime Minister P. Kanellopoulos tried desperately to find a majority in parliament but the political parties remained stubbornly uncooperative despite warnings that there might by a coup d’état. The Americans told the King who was deeply involved in the planning of the coup that they would not support a dictatorship. The articles describes the activities of the big junta (the generals) and of the small junta (the colonels) and of the other persons involved e.g. queen mother Frideriki. Special emphasis is put on the role of the CIA in the coup of 21 April 1967.
Heinz A. Richter
Der Anschlag auf Makarios 1970 und die Ermordung von Polykarpos Georkatzis
After the Kofinou-crisis in 1967 Makarios began to steer a new course: He initiated the intercommunal talks which signalled a change of policy. He understood that enosis was no longer feasible and that unfettered independence was the only option for a peaceful solution of the Cyprus problem. This infuriated the partisans of enosis who cooperated closely with the Greek junta and their henchmen under the officers of the Greek contingent (Eldyk) in Cyprus. A secret unground organization, the National Front was created which began with terrorist acts against the supporters of Makarios and the Turkish Cypriots. The climax of its hideous activities was the attack on Makarios which failed and the murder of former minister of the interior P. Georkatzis. In the latter Greek junta officers were deeply involved.