Mannheimer Beiträge zur Klassischen Archäologie und Geschichte Griechenlands und Zyperns
Die phrygische Nekropole von Ankara
The Phrygian Necropolis of Ankara, located in an area in the east of Ankara that covers 16 km², has been the object of various archaeological researches during the last century. In the course of these investigations, a series of grave mounds of various dimensions has been found, all dating between the end of the 8th and the early 6th century B.C., and has correctly been associated with the Phryigan settlement of Ankara. With nearly 20 surely located grave mounds, the Phrygian Necropolis of Ankara is one of the largest tumuli necropoles of the Phrygian period in all Anatolia. Suprisingly, this very important necropolis of the Phrygian period has so far found no appropriate weight in the archaeological discussion. The result of this insufficient interest is that the tumuli from Ankara dating to the heyday of the Phrygian culture in Anatolia, until now remained largely unknown. Therefore, the intention of this paper is a detailed introduction to these grave complexes and their comparison with the tumuli in the Royal cemetery of the Phrygian Capital of Gordion.
Die Phainomena des Arat und der Kalenderfries in Athen
The marble frieze on two blocks above the entrance to the Little Metropolis in Athens - in our literature called calendar frieze - comes from an unknown Late Hellenistic building. It shows the Athenian months together with zodiac signs and figures alluding to festivals, rites and climate. Though the Athenian year began in high summer, the calendar frieze begins in late autumn. This is explained by the astral epos „Phainomena“, which was written at the Macedonian court ca. 270 B. C. by Aratus. His influence exists throughout the frieze. Thus Scorpio is divided into two signs (5 and 41) and Virgo (38) is the same as Justice (Dike). She carries a rod (vindicta), a symbol of liberty. The cap (pileus) on the head of the ploughman Bouzyges (8) symbolizes the same. It shows the mentality of (already) Roman Athens. It was a civitas libera. The wind god Boreas (24) - called their son-in-law by the Delphic oracle - runs with a Persian ship in his arm in memory of Salamis. The goddess Hera at her wedding feast (17) is accompanied by the evening star (16). Hesperus rides on the Olenian goat, the nurse of Zeus. The morning star on a horse (40) is alluding to the festival Genesia, celebrated by the Athenians in memory of their ancestors. That star, a son of the morning goddess Eos, was related to the Athenians: his father was the Attic hero Cephalus.
Der Roma-Augustus-Monopteros auf der Athener Akropolis
The erection of the monopteros of Roma and Augustus marked a significant transformation of the spatial concept of the Athenian Acropolis, which had remained virtually unchanged for the following centuries since the Periclean building program in the second half of the 5th cent. B.C.. Whereas recent research was mainly concerned with the historical contextualization of the monopteros, several problems regarding its archaeological evidence have long been neglected.
This desideratum gave reason to reanalyse the monopteros in its entire spectrum, i.e. in respect of its architecture, its localisation in the spatial and ideal concept of the Acropolis and finally its meaning in the sociopolitical context of Augustan Athens. In contrast to the traditional localisation, the ashlar foundation in the east of the Parthenon must be excluded as the original site of the monopteros, as indicated by the reconstructed stratigraphy. However, due to the lack of firm evidence, the actual location remains unknown. Subsequently the supposed Augustan dating of the repair of the Erechtheum, which is based on a circular argument anyway, must be called into question. The dedication of the monopteros was carried out as an initiative of the Athenian elite in late summer of 19 B.C. and programmatically referred to Augustus‘ diplomatic victory over the Parthians.
Überlegungen zum Eikon des Platon von Silanion
The article contains a proposal for a reconstruction of Platon’s eikon of Silanion by uniting the headless sitting marble figure kept in the Louvre (MR 151 Ma 79) and the copy of the type of Plato’s head owned by the Munich Glyptotek, which exactly represents the iconography of Plato’s “Autorenbüste”.
Denkmäler im Dialog - Überlegungen zur kommunikativen Leistung von Stiftungen und Ehrungen römischer Magistrate
Donations of and tributes to Roman magistrates in the Eastern part of the Roman Empire were part of the communication between Rome and the conquered areas in the East. The tight connection of these donations and tributes with the historic incidences in the course of the Roman Expansion is obvious. The underlying rules of this communication will be reviewed on the basis of selected examples by means of the involved media like text (inscription), image (statue) and sound (proclamation) as well as further parameters like the site of the monuments, their scale and relationship to monuments nearby. It emerges a communication system with several levels, in which messages are delivered to the particular audience by the calculated use of several media and certain parameters.
Die Grabungstechnik in Südwestdeutschland. Ein Blick auf die Entwicklung und den Stand der modernen Grabungstechnik in der Denkmalpflege
Sven Jäger - Anne Paulski - Christian Seitz
Since the first days of scientific archaeology the picture of adventure has steadily been a companion. But in the last hundred years of its development, field archaeology has changed from a bold adventure to a throughly planned scientific work. In Germany, the introduction of the heritage protection act in the early 70’s of the 20th century brought a rapid progress. Besides the academic and scientific excavations, governmental institutions had the quest to save cultural heritage. A good example for such a governmentaly guided excavation is the one of a Roman settlement in Rheingönheim near Ludwigshafen, Rhineland-Palatinate. Basically, the traditional German excavation methods had been used there (excavation through plana). But today new methods have arrived. Computer based digital measurement and great digging machines, for instance, are commonly used and new techniques from the scientific excavations were adapted. Using this potential, a modern excavation is less an adventure, than a solid scientific work. Due to planned and targeted working on an excavation, it is possible today to collect and analyze valuable scientific data as soon possible.
Motive der Antikenrezeption auf Nürnberger Fliesen im Schloss Favorite bei Rastatt.
Sophie Marie, Marquise of Badenia, a rich heiress from Bohemia, who - contrary to the customs of the time and the wishes of her god-father the emperor - had chosen for love’s sake her much older husband Ludwig, the so-called Türkenlouis, built a hunting lodge called Favorite as a retreat from the court at Rastatt after the death of her husband. The octagonal central hall that connected all storeys was covered with more than 8000 blue and white tiles in Dutch style, but probably from a newly established workshop at Nuremberg. The enormous amount of tiles needed must have led to collecting all that was available in the storerooms of the firm without any regard whatsoever of the subjects. Besides the large numbers of some general themes, they obviously had to use up tiny rests of several series with unusual subjects. Therefore, the enormous number of tiles allows us a close glance into Nuremberg’s unusually broad iconographic spectrum, compared to that of the usual tile workshops in the Netherlands or neighboring Germany. The subjects of some of these series belong to the classical tradition, such as amors or putti, Greek planetary gods, mythological scenes from Ovidius’ Metamorphoses, the usual composite monsters, ruins of antique buildings etc. The printed examples the tiles were copied from still remain to be discovered.
Das griechische Nationalheiligtum von Missolonghi. Wie man mit der griechischen Antike moderne Propaganda inszeniert.
The town of Messolonghi in western Greece owns a great, woody park to hold in memory the heroes of the Greek war of independence by monuments and by a national celebration every year at the anniversary of the fall of the city in 1826. This article is focused on six of the most important monuments: The tomb of the Greek heroes, the grave-altar of M. Ch. Botzaris, the monument of the foreign philhellenes, and the special monuments for the Italians, Germans and northern Americans. It is shown how the Greek set the conflict with the Turks in the frame of antique struggles against oriental enemies or the heathens - whereas the western monuments, erected in the 1930ties, exploited the history of the place against one another along the political front-lines of their time. All this is acquired by allusions to ancient Greek literature and art.
Die Unabhängigkeitserklärung Bulgariens (22.09.-5.10.1908) und ihr Widerhall in Griechenland.
Taking advantage of the Young Turk Revolution, Bulgaria, in accordance with Vienna, proclaimed its independence on the 5th of Oktober 1908. It caused consternation in Greece, where the government feared international complications, should the Ottoman Empire invade Bulgaria. In this case, Greece would side with the Young Turks to extract concessions in Macedonia. Following the Bulgarian example, Crete proclaimed its Union with Greece. But Athens adopted a very cautious attitude towards the events in Crete, the King refused to accept the Union, since England spoke out against Crete’s Union with Greece. Athens believed that it could raise the Cretan Question in an international conference. However, the Great Powers separated the Bul-garian Question from the Cretan Question, so that no international conference was held.
A chimerical attempt to end all wars: the Briand-Kellogg Pact - The view from the Greek diplomatic archives.
On August 27, 1928 the representatives of several countries signed the Briand-Kellogg Pact in Paris for the renunciation of war as instrument of national politics. Within the following years, almost all countries of the world adhered to the Pact. However, the Pact, which was named after its authors, was in reality nothing more than a chimerical attempt to end all wars. This article seeks to examine the Pact, using mainly the documents that can be found in the Diplomatic and Historical Archives of the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The study proves that Athens viewed the whole matter according to its own interests and fears, and for this reason gave particular emphasis to subjects relating to Eastern Europe and most importantly the Balkans.
Verletzungen des Kriegsvertrags von Varkiza auf der Peloponnes im Sommer 1945
Heinz A. Richter
The Varkiza Agreement of February 1945 teminated the second round of the Greek Civil War in which Britain had intervened. The agreement guaranteed freedom, promised to punish collaborators, create a new National Army, and cleanse the state apparatus. Unfortunately, none of these promises were kept. In 1945 a wave of counterrevolutionary violance swept over the country which led to the third round of the Greek Civil War when the the Greek Left began to fight against the White Terror. The source situation on these events is rather scant and stems mainly from the left side. This article, however, contains a most important document with a detailed objective description of the White Terror in the summer of 1945 in the Peloponnese by the former Commander of the Allied Military Mission with the Greek partisans, C. M. Woodhouse. This report is so sympathetic to the case of the persecuted Left that its author decided to leave it aside when he wrote his books in the years of the Cold War.
Der Mord an George Polk im Mai 1948 in Thessaloniki.
Heinz A. Richter
Thessaloniki was the location of two spectacular political murders during the Cold War. In 1948, the American journalist George Polk and in 1963 Gregorios Lambrakis were killed by members of the parakratos. In both cases, the security forces of the Greek state were involved. The orders for the murders were given in highest government circles. But the Lambrakis case was cleared up by a courageous investigating judge, whereas the Polk case was covered up and an innocent person was found guilty and imprisoned for many years. The Lambrakis case became famous by Vasilis Vasilikos’ novel “Z” and the subsequent film by Costas Gavras. The Polk case was the subject of several American accounts. The authors of these books, however, were not well acquainted with Greece’s history of the Civil War and thus did not find the right interpretation and came to wrong conclusions. This article puts the murder case in its Civil War context and comes to the clear conclusion that it was a political murder committed by the parakratos on orders from high above.
From Ankara to Bled - Marshal Tito’s visit to Greece (Juni 1954) and the reformation of the Balkan Alliance.
Tito’s visit to Greece contributed to the Balkan Pact’s transformation into a military alliance. Despite of the establishment of Soviet-Yugoslav diplomatic relations in 1953, the Soviet Union did not make any political motion to normalize the bilateral relations. For safety reasons Tito visited Athens (June 1954) to promote Jugoslavia’s military cooperation with Greece and Turkey without ruling out Yugoslavia’s accession into the NATO. But Soviet leadership, fearing Yugoslavia’s involvement into western defence mechanisms, sent the message to Belgrade that it was ready to recognise Stalin’s blunders towards Yugoslavia. Thus, Tito applied a policy of equal distance between East and West and refused to link up the Balkan Alliance with NATO.
Die Affäre Forsthoff - die junge Republik Zypern und ihr deutscher Präsident des Verfassungsgerichts.
The agreements of Zurich and London provided that a neutral judge should be appointed as president of the Cyprus Supreme Constitutional Court. While the new constitution was being drafted, a former Greek minister submitted a proposal: the German expert in constitutional law Ernst Forsthoff. Makarios and Küçük accepted the proposal and Forsthoff was appointed. Soon after, rumors started to spread that Forsthoff was a former National Socialist - rumors which were eventually verified by different sources. This article describes the developments connected with the appointment of Forsthoff as President of the Constitutional Court until he resigned from this post in 1963. Numerous sources allow to paint a differentiated view of the various personal and political interests of the persons and institutions involved.
Weltkrieg im Spiegel deutschsprachiger Reiseführer
Visitors of Crete can choose from a great variety of guidebooks. Most of them contain some information on World War II. Only very few inform in greater detail. Unfortunately, many pieces of information are inaccurate or even wrong. This applies especially to numbers of people killed in massacres and the relevance of Crete for the warring factions and the course of the war. The article tries to pinpoint these mistakes and correct them.