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Der sog. Alyattes-Tumulus in Sardes
The biggest and most dominating of all the tumuli in the necropolis area streching about ten km along the Hermos valley originally was directly connected by an old road to the settlement at Sardes. It is identified with the so-called Alyattes tumulus mentioned by Herodotus, which fits in with its archaeological dating to the second quarter of the 6th century B.C. The structure of the tumulus is analyzed starting from observations in the mid 19th century report by Spiegelthal and concluding that the main intention of the builders of the royal tumulus was the political effect of the enormous size and impressive presentation of the tumulus to the inhabitants of the capital.
The Manufacture of Protomes in the Aegean. A Terracotta Female Protome Mold from Sigeion
Large numbers of terracotta protomes depicting females come from the Aegean, and there has been much scholarly discussion regarding the location of their workshops. Rescue excavations in 2001 at the site of Sigeion has shed light on the manufacture of these terracotta protomes. In this excavation a protome fragment was unearthed as well as part of a mold. It is quite likely that Sigeion was an important center for the production of protomes, and that it supplied the cities of the Troad and the Aegean islands.
Lower Granicus River Valley Tombs and Bozlartepe Tumuli Excavation
In the course of rescue excavations in the area of the Lower Granicus Valley tumuli and other tombs of different type were excavated that help to give a clearer image of the Troas area in classical times.
Tod und Leben an attischen Gräbern der klassischen Zeit
An examination of the paintings on classic attic white ground funerary lekythoi that depict ‘death and grave’ in a tight association with the re-emerging attic gravereliefs after the middle of the 5th century B.C. leads to the conclusion that here and there not only the social role of the deceased in this world, but also the accomplishment of the experience of death was a central concern of the images: on one hand by describing death as an experienced farewell, but also on the other hand by making strongly aware the potential reunion and lasting community of life and death on the regular erected and visited grave-monument. Especially the rituals described on the grave lekythoi certified on the later grave reliefs that the integrity of familiar communities was not destroyed by death. The painful and disturbing experience of death was integrated in this way as an indispensable part of life in the polis community, but dealing with it also awarded it (in accordance with the established rules) a customizable form, which set structure and a secure hold against the event invading the family all of a sudden. The erection of the tombs and the execution of the rituals attached to it promised - not least also as factors averting fear - the possibility of an additional cancellation of human finitude.
Die Lekythos in Athen NM 1044 auf der Basis mit der Hegesostele NM 3624 im Bezirk XVIII des Kerameikos
A search for the vessel that once stood in the round setting carved into in the base of the Hegesos Stele was made based on the diameter and position of the setting relative to the stele. Of ca. 300 measured marble lekythoi only one, a formerly painted marble lekythos in Athens (NM 1044), fits in this position. Since its painted decoration is similar to that of the late lekythoi of the Achilles Painter, this lekythos can be dated together with the Hegesos Stele to the fourth quarter of the 5th century BC. This lekythos, with its skilled relief work and iconographic theme, thus serves as the earliest known evidence of a prominent oikos, that of the Koriobos family in the noble deme Melite.
Neues zum Grabnaiskos der Korallion Ker P 688
The grave naiskos of Korallion is one of the five grave monuments of a family peribolos at the Athenian cemetery of Kerameikos. A. Brückner recognised 1909 two metics men of Hercleia at Pontus as the owners of the peribolos, because their names were ingraved on a stele situated at the middle of the peribolos. Brueckner also thought, that this simple name stele was the oldest grave monument of the peribolos. But technical, epigraphical and iconographical evidence noted here prove that the oldest monument of the peribolos was the grave naiskos of Korallion, the wife of the one man of Heracleia at Pontus. She is called the wife, gyne, of Agathon from Heracleia. The legitimate marriage at Athens was an exclusive privilege only of people with Athenian parents and privileged foreigners, only.
Licht aus dem Dunkel Thrakiens. Spätklassische Tonlampenwerkstätten aus Maroneia
Athanasia Tsoka und Maria Deoudi
Within the Late-classical and Hellenistic city of Maroneia many lamps were found. As the clay-analysis of these artefacts clearly showed, the lamps were mostly local products. The stylistic and typological analysis of the lamps shows also in detail, that the craftsmen of Maroneia knew in detail the lamps from other regions, especially from Athens, which they in the first step copied for their own production. Within the long period of the local lamp-production the workshops created their own types of lamps, which were quite different from the imported ones. So the lamps give first hints about local style and development of artefacts in this time in Northern Greece.
Der Dux Mogontiacensis, das Kastell Altrip und die Ziegelstempel der Mainzer Truppen
The roman fort of Altrip was destroyed early in the 5th century. Therefore the chapter of the dux mogontiacensis in the notitia dignitatum must have been written earlier, probably in the last quarter of the 4th century. It cannot be proved that the office of the dux, as it is mentioned in the notitia dignitatum, is dating from the 5th century. This does not excludes that the notitia dignitatum as a whole originates of about 425. The notitia dignitatum is a book only for representation.
Bulgarische und byzantinische Identität in der Zeit vor den Kreuzzügen
The paper discusses the relations between Byzantium and Bulgaria since the end of the 7th century in view of the development of their political, ethnic and ideological identities. Generally speaking, the Byzantines tried to integrate migrating tribes who reached the borders of their empire in Southeastern Europe into their ecumenic political system by applying a threefold method (which described the emperor Leo the Wise): hellenizing, establishing probyzantine leaders, christianizing. This method was practised with remarkable flexibility which, in the Bulgarian case, supported the ethnic merger of Thraco-Macedonians, Slavs and Protobulgarians (not the Vlachs). The Bulgarian rulers adopted in part the fundamentals of “Roman” political ideology and tried to usurp the privileges which the Byzantines had inherited or arrogated. On the other hand, the emperors of the “Macedonian Dynasty” claimed, on the pretext to be the successors of Alexander the Great, a definite leadership over the last, eschatological ecumenic empire, the christian Imperium Romanum.
Venezianer, Deutsche und Osmanen im Kampf um Griechenland (1645-1718)
In 1645 Ottoman troops landed on the island of Crete in order to wrest it from the Republic of Venice, which ruled the island since 1204/1207. The War of Crete (1645-1669) reached its climax with the last siege of Candia/Iraklion (1666-1669). At that time, the Venetians received a lot of logistical and military support from the Holy Roman Empire, where not only the Roman Catholic states, for example Bavaria, but also Protestant states, for example the duchies of Brunswick-Celle, Brunswick-Calenberg (later Brunswick-Lüneburg/ Hannover), and Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel supported Venice with bigger and smaller contingents of troops, subsidies and supplies. For the soldiers from Bavaria and Lower Saxony Venice provided substantial payments to the princes. For the princes the letting of their troops was a way to refinance the high cost of necessary for a standing army. Nevertheless, these German soldiers fought like the Venetians, the Knights of St John and the soldiers of the Pope did with great devotion and courage. In December 1684 ducats Duke Ernst August of Brunswick and Lüneburg (1679 to 1698, since 1692 Elector) let to Venice for an annual payment of 72,360 the three regiments ‘Prince Maximilian Wilhelm’, ‘Von Podewils’ and ‘Von Ohr’ (1686 a fourth regiment, the regiment ‘Raugraf’), which participated during the years 1685-1687 in the struggle for the conquest of Morea/Peloponnese and Athens. The diary of cadet Joachim Dietrich Zehe from the Brunswick Regiment Von Podewils informs us about everyday life, the sufferings and the casualties of the soldiers, caused by the lossy battles and the ever rampant epidemics, in very clear manner. This officer had not only formed a strong interest in the buildings and the mythology of classical Greece, but also dealt intensively with the social and religious life of the contemporary Greek population, which he studied and described with great accuracy. Thus, this diary is proving not only as a military, but also as a first-class cultural and historical source. After 1688 the Nine Years War (1689-1697) and probably also the terrible losses of the regiments deployed in Greece resulted in the fact that the German princes let no longer with the same willingness troops to Venice.
Antikenrezeption am Hofe des Kurfürsten Johann Wilhelm von der Pfalz in Düsseldorf (1658/1679-1716). Machtpräsentation und Herrschaftslegitimation
Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine, resided in Düsseldorf in the second half of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century. There he not only built a huge collection of Dutch and Flemish paintings, but also one of the biggest collections of plaster casts after the
Prinz Eugen der edle Sammler. Antiken und Antikenrezeption in seinen Sammlungen. Zu einer Ausstellung in Wien
An exceptional exhibition in Vienna on Eugen of Savoy, the military genius that saved the Habsburg’s reign in the ‘Holy Roman Empire’ against Turkish and French aggression around the turn of the 17th to 18th centuries, was focussing more on him as the friend of fine arts and sciences than the military and diplomat. This encourages to look into the importance of the reception of the classical tradition in his political representation and his leisure and into the way his collections of antiquities and arts were put together and put to use, allowing us a glance on the individual behind the political figure and to discover a person devoted to science and scholarship.
Die fünf “vorzüglichsten Stäte Macedoniens” auf Plänen des k. k. Konsuls Wilhelm von Chabert aus dem Jahre 1832
This article focuses on the history of cartography in respect of the Balkan peninsula by reconstructing the origin of a map from the year 1832, which depicts the city of Melnik as documented by the Austrian consul in Salonika Wilhelm von Chabert-Ostland. This map was irst published by the Bulgarian scholar Violeta Nešva, who had found it in the Kriegsarchiv of the Austrian State Archives. Thorough research by the author of the present article has revealed that the published map is a copy and that the original is kept in the Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv of the Austrian State Archives. Furthermore, the whole genesis both of the original as well as of the copy can be reconstructed on the basis of archival documents in Vienna. These documents show that Wilhelm von Chabert-Ostland designed altogether five maps -i.e. of Melnik, Salonika, Serrai, Sideokastron and Kabala, of which four still exist and are published for the first time within this article.
Antikenrezeption zwischen Neobarock und Jugendstil bei der Gestaltung der Christuskirche in Mannheim vor einhundert Jahren
On the occasion of the centenary of the Protestant main church of the city of Mannheim, often claimed to be an example of Art Nouveau architecture, an analysis of its architectural concept and a search for the origins of its iconographic and ornamental elements is untertaken. It shows that - while the outside is dominated by a neo baroque impression - in general - and especially in the interior - it is a work of different variants of neo classical styles. There are very few of Art Nouveau elements mixed in, whereas some of the artists involved show tendencies towards modern movements later to be classified expressionism, and all this is melted into one impressive unity.
Greek-German Relations in the late 1930s
This article covers the Greek-German relations on the eve and during the first years of the Metaxas dictatorship in Greece (1936-1940), based on the Greek and German state archives and all the available literature. Emphasis is given to the impact of the trade policy of Nazi Germany in the Balkans and the (consequent) Greek reaction, due to the fact that it affected not only the economical but also the political developments in Greece. It also examines the interconnection between the economic penetration of the Third Reich and Metaxas’ rearmament programme, since it renewed its ties with Berlin, taking advantage of German Knowhow, and potentially fomented the establishment of a dictatorship in Greece. Thereby it raises the question of a potential intention on Germany’s part of integrating Greece into its informal empire in Eastern Europe and whether the fundamentally pro-British policy was challenged, as expressed by the dual leadership of Metaxas and George II.
Die Eroberung des Isthmus von Korinth am 26. April 1941
Heinz A. Richter
Usually the airborne attack on the Corinth Canal is described and interpreted as an effort by the Germans to hinder the escape of the British expeditionary force to the Peloponnesian evacuation ports. But this interpretation is only part of the truth. Indeed, the purpose of hindering the escape was only partly achieved because most of the British troops had already passed the bridges and were on their way to the ports. The blowing up of the two bridges over the canal did not impede the German advance because a pontoon bridge replaced them within hours. The real aim of the airborne operation was to hamper the British plan to blow up the canal walls. This would have had seriously handicapped Italian oil supply from Romania via the Black Sea, the Straits, the Aegean Sea and the Corinth Canal to Italy. The articles gives the details of the political planning and the military realization.
Churchill und die Schlacht um Kreta
Heinz A. Richter
In spring 1941 Churchill intervened in Greece with totally inadequate forces (2 infantry division and 1 tank brigade) to help the Greeks against the Germans. This operation ended in a total fiasco similar to the operation a year earlier in Norway which had brought about the downfall of the Chamberlain government. Churchill knew that he would have to face stearn critcism in the House of Commons. Thus when he was informed by the code breakers in Bletchley Park (Ultra) that the Germans were planning an airborne attack on Crete he considered this an excellent opportunity to inflict heavy losses on the parachutists and ordered the stubborn defence of Crete. The Battle of Crete was fought in order to reduce criticism about his intervention in Greece. Additionally this study analyzes the political and military role played by Churchill in the course of the Battle of Crete. Special emphasis is on Churchill’s relations with the Governments of Australia and New Zealand.
Kreta im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Die Deutsche Besatzung von 1941-1945
Marlen v. Xylander
After the German Wehrmacht had invaded Yugoslavia and Greece on 6. April 1941, German parachutists started to conquer the Island of Crete on 20. May 1941. The German troops captured the island in spite of fierce resistance from the Cretan civilian population and Allied forces. The invasion was followed by four years of German occupation. This article offers a closer look at the behaviour and the resistance of the Cretan population on the one hand and the measures taken by the German occupying power on the other hand.
During World War the well known German author Erhard Kästner got the chance to avoid the almost certain death in Russia and write a book on Crete for the German Air Force. Indeed, Kästner wrote several books on Crete, the Agean Islands and Greece which attracted a large readership during and after the war even to this day. Since few years he has been attacked because he did not mention German war crimes committed in Greece. The article explores the arguments of the only scholarly study on Kästern’s work. Hiller von Gaertringen describes Kästner’s life in Greece (1941-1945) in extenso as well as the genesis, function and proposition of the various books written during those years. In another part she analyses the re-writing of these books after the war. The latter present a changed picture of Greece. In the earlier versions Kästner was an unconditional admirer of classical antiquity now he stressed continuity of antiquity and christendom.
Zu den Generalsprozessen Unterschiede der Verfahren und Urteile über deutsche Besatzungsgeneräle in Griechenland
After WWII three major trials took place involving of German generals who had been in Greece during the war. Generals Felmy and Lanz, who had been commanders of the army corps in Greece and General Speidel, who had been in control of the civil administration, had to face charges at the International Tribunal in Nürnberg. General Student, who had been the leader of the parachute regiments which conquered Crete in May 1941, was brought to the British Military Court at Lüneburg in Northern Germany, and Generals Müller and Bräuer, who had been commanders of the “fortress Crete”, were brought to trial in Athens. The article describes the three trials and compares the different judicial methods applied in court. Attached to this article is the 1947 mercy petition to the King of Greece by the latter two generals. It gives a deep insight into the way the trial was conducted in Athens.